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This chapter expands on the concepts focused on the solid earth (geology).
We begin with a discussion on geologic time and the rock cycle — a graphic and conceptual model to illustrate common rocks and earth materials and the processes that form or change them, over time.
Igneous rocks includes intrusive rocks (rocks that cooled below the surface) and volcanic rocks formed on the Earth's surface by volcanism.
Igneous rocks also form from melting associated with extraterrestrial impacts.
The word igneous applies to any rock or mineral that solidified from molten or partly molten material (referring to magma underground or lava on the surface).
The word igneous also applies to the processes related to the formation of such rocks.
The logical place to start discussion is to examine the material below our feet.
This section presents many basic concepts that are universal to all physical sciences.It is important to note that tectonic forces within the Earth are responsible for many of the changes to rocks and surface features on the landscape.Tectonic forces are responsible for the gradual uplift of mountain ranges, both on land and on the seafloor, as well as creating basins that flood with lakes or seawater, and fill in with sediments (Figure 3-5)." in which he promoted concepts of the "rock cycle" (Figure 3-3).The rock cycle illustrates the series of events in which a rock of one type is converted to one or more other types, and then possibly back to the original type.